These functions assist with updating or adding column headers (modify_header()), footnotes (modify_footnote()), spanning headers (modify_spanning_header()), and table captions (modify_caption()). Use show_header_names() to learn the column names.

  update = NULL,
  text_interpret = c("md", "html"),
  quiet = NULL,
  stat_by = NULL

modify_footnote(x, update = NULL, abbreviation = FALSE, quiet = NULL)

modify_spanning_header(x, update = NULL, quiet = NULL)

modify_caption(x, caption, text_interpret = c("md", "html"))

show_header_names(x = NULL, quiet = NULL)



a gtsummary object


list of formulas or a single formula specifying the updated column header, footnote, or spanning header. The LHS specifies the column(s) to be updated, and the RHS is the updated text. Use the show_header_names() to see the column names that can be modified.


String indicates whether text will be interpreted with gt::md() or gt::html(). Must be "md" (default) or "html".


Logical indicating whether to print messages in console. Default is FALSE


Specify a column and updated column label, e.g. modify_header(p.value = "Model P-values"). This is provided as an alternative to the update= argument. They accomplish the same goal of updating column headers.


DEPRECATED, use update = all_stat_cols() ~ "<label>" instead.


Logical indicating if an abbreviation is being updated.


a string of the table caption/title


Updated gtsummary object

tbl_summary(), tbl_svysummary(), and tbl_cross()

When assigning column headers, footnotes, spanning headers, and captions for these gtsummary tables, you may use {N} to insert the number of observations. tbl_svysummary objects additionally have {N_unweighted} available.

When there is a stratifying by= argument present, the following fields are additionally available to stratifying columns: {level}, {n}, and {p} ({n_unweighted} and {p_unweighted} for tbl_svysummary objects)

Syntax follows glue::glue(), e.g. all_stat_cols() ~ "**{level}**, N = {n}".


When assigning column headers for tbl_regression tables, you may use {N} to insert the number of observations.


Captions are assigned based on output type.

Example Output

Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

See also


Daniel D. Sjoberg


# create summary table tbl <- trial[c("age", "grade", "trt")] %>% tbl_summary(by = trt, missing = "no") %>% add_p() # print the column names that can be modified show_header_names(tbl)
#> As a usage guide, the code below re-creates the current column headers.
#> modify_header(update = list( #> label ~ '**Characteristic**', #> stat_1 ~ '**Drug A**, N = 98', #> stat_2 ~ '**Drug B**, N = 102', #> p.value ~ '**p-value**' #> ))
#> #> #> Column Name Column Header #> ------------ -------------------- #> label **Characteristic** #> stat_1 **Drug A**, N = 98 #> stat_2 **Drug B**, N = 102 #> p.value **p-value**
# Example 1 ---------------------------------- # updating column headers, footnote, and table caption modify_ex1 <- tbl %>% modify_header( update = list(label ~ "**Variable**", p.value ~ "**P**") ) %>% modify_footnote( update = all_stat_cols() ~ "median (IQR) for Age; n (%) for Grade" ) %>% modify_caption("**Patient Characteristics** (N = {N})") # Example 2 ---------------------------------- # updating headers, remove all footnotes, add spanning header modify_ex2 <- tbl %>% modify_header(update = all_stat_cols() ~ "**{level}**, N = {n} ({style_percent(p)}%)") %>% # use `modify_footnote(everything() ~ NA, abbreviation = TRUE)` to delete abbrev. footnotes modify_footnote(update = everything() ~ NA) %>% modify_spanning_header(all_stat_cols() ~ "**Treatment Received**") # Example 3 ---------------------------------- # updating an abbreviation in table footnote modify_ex3 <- glm(response ~ age + grade, trial, family = binomial) %>% tbl_regression(exponentiate = TRUE) %>% modify_footnote(ci ~ "CI = Credible Interval", abbreviation = TRUE)